Sunday, January 28, 2007

Joining of Russian Lands

Ivan III the Great laid claim to parts of the territory of The Duchy of Mieczyslaw, however he was unable to enforce the claims, as he was still forcing back the Khanates to the south of Muscovy.

In these actions men were needed, and with the declaration of Moscow as the 3rd ROME, many of the ancient family houses of Mieczyslaw felt threatened that their claims and titles would be superceeded by this contender to ROME.

Delegations were sent to both ROME and Moscow, with the intent to prove the rightful claims over the lands and establish the overlordship, before either Moscow pushed new claims against them or the Teutonic Knights declared their desire to control them.

In 1502 the Muscovy attacked Livonia and the push for recognition from ROME was made again, this time the ancient documents were accepted and a new Bishop of Mieczyslaw was named. With this declaration the szlachta (knights) attempted to hold a Diet (Parliament).

Their attmpts to organize a Diet were not successful until 1534, where after Ivan III had died and Ivan IV, while still a child and the Russian hold over the szlachta had become disorganized, had not decreed any actions to be taken in regards to Mieczyslaw.

A Count was finally decided upon and recognized in both Moscow and Rome.

Sunday, January 14, 2007

Zolotaya Orda

In 1241 The Kipchak Khanate, or Golden Hordes began invasions.

Led by Batu Khan and Subuta, his ruthless general, these Mongol hordes swept across the Duchy with blazing speed.

Prior to this some men had answered the calls of the Order of the Bretheren of the Sword (later to be known as Teutonic Knights). In an attempt to stop Zolotaya Orda before the sack of Kiev in 1239.

Because of the forewarning, Mieczyslaw, did not resist Batu Khan and so, like Smolensk was spared the terrible scourge of the Mongol vengance, such as at Kozelsk. Batu Khan seemed content to ignore Mieczyslaw, so long as tribute was paid, so the otherwise defenceless city paid the tribute.

Further invasions swept across Ducal lands in 1259 and 1287, however effective rule was only thru Zolotaya Orda favor until 1481, when after the Great stand on the Ugra river, Zolotaya Orda was defeated and forever gone from The Duchy of Mieczyslaw.

With the victory over the Golden Horde Ivan III declared himself Tsar of all the Russias, of which at least parts of The Duchy of Mieczyslaw were included.

The Reformation

With the reform Papacy and the dictatus Papae extending the proclamation of the Pax Dei many, seeking to escape the expanding horrors of The Investiture Struggle fled to the north and east, out of the Holy Roman Empire and beyond (they thought) the arm of the Church.

With the loosening of the dependence on the Emperor leading to the disappearance of the Ottonian Imperial Church, the Bishops were transformed from Imperial Officials into Imperial Vassals, leading to greater strength to the Princes of Northern Italy and Central Europe.

To the east, Archbishop Henry Kietlicz of Gnesen assured ecclesiastical liberty through canonical election of Bishops in most Duchies.

It was here in the east, that The Duchy of Mieczyslaw obtained its first charter in 1207 AD.

Named for the principal city Mieczyslaw, which in turn was named for the first 'Hetman' family Mieczyslaw.